(chiefly of environmental pollution and pollutants) originating in human activity.
Example: Cultural features supporting an ANTHROPOGENIC origin for this deposit include hearths, burnt bone, chipped stone tools and various other artefacts including 2 picrolite pendants beads and a pierced stone disc.
The envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.
Example: New Urbanist communities are popular with today's homebuyers as they provide for a small town ATMOSPHERE .
The chemical element of atomic number 6, a non-metal which has two main forms (diamond and graphite) and which also occurs in impure form in charcoal, soot, and coal.
Example: Understanding the distribution of per capita CARBON dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important in considering the design of international climate change proposals.
Involving or causing sudden great damage or suffering.
Example: The nation feared that invasion of Cuba would lead to a CATASTROPHIC war, and yet Kennedy would be politically reviled if he did nothing.
A change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
Example: By addressing and analyzing those political, economic, and environmental concerns of megacities in the CLIMATE CHANGE context, this thesis finds that these urban areas have much to be concerned about.
fr: changement climatique
Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas found in our atmosphere. Its chemical formula is CO2, which means it is one carbon atom bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is a waste product in our bodies and is also produced by burning fossil fuels.
Example: I find limited evidence of emissions convergence with an international data set over 1960-2000, and stark divergence in per capita CO2 among the U.S. states over 1960-1999.
A combustible black or dark brown rock consisting chiefly of carbonized plant matter, found mainly in underground seams and used as fuel.
Example: Reclamation techniques at five surface COAL mines are evaluated; the mines are located in Colorado, Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota and New Mexico.
The action of clearing a wide area of trees.
Example: The fungus is Aspergillum and is found in soils on land, it is thought to have been washed into the sea when soil erosion has occurred possibly due to farming on the land or DEFORESTATION.
fr: la déforestation
The production and discharge of something, especially gas or radiation.
Example: This thesis utilizes the MIT EMISSION Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to study the interrelationships between these two types of policies.
Energy efficiency means using less energy to provide the same service. For example, a compact fluorescent bulb is more efficient than a traditional incandescent bulb as it uses much less electrical energy to produce the same amount of light.
Example: This research focuses on developing a tool to improve ENERGY EFFICIENCY of the built environment.
fr: efficacité énergétique
The available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid.
Example: Simulation was chosen because there is insufficient historical EVIDENCE to determine the value of the various factors in estimating an organization's reaction to the expanding use of EC.
A natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
Example: Climate change and urban air pollution are strongly connected since they are both partly originated by FOSSIL FUEL burning.
fr: combustibles fossiles
The abbreviation for gases that absorb and emit radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, for example, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone.
Example: The dominant forcings now appear to be stratospheric and tropospheric ozone, biomass burning, indirect aerosols, solar variability and GHGS .
A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants.
Example: In the past decade or so, GLOBAL WARMING has become the most contentious of all international environmental issues.
fr: le réchauffement climatique,
A gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation. Carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons are examples of greenhouse gases.
Example: The urban areas of the developed world will likely find ways to decrease their per capita GREENHOUSE GAS emissions through more efficient energy uses and technologies.
fr: gaz à effet de serre
Individual action refers to the actions taken by one individual person, acting based on his or her personal decisions. Collective action refers to the actions taken by a collection or group of people, acting based on a collective decision.
Example: The debate between Ralph Miliband and Nicos Poulantzas reveals that a clear distinction exists between social structure and INDIVIDUAL ACTION .
fr: action individuelle
intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
An intergovernmental body of the United Nations, dedicated to providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change, its natural, political and economic impacts and risks, and possible response options.
fr: groupe d'experts intergouvernemental sur les changements climatiques
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations, dedicated to providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change, its natural, political and economic impacts and risks, and possible response options.
Example: IPCC report - Policymakers 2007 Models suggest that the major grain growing regions of North America and central China will become substantially hotter and drier.
The Kyoto Protocol, also known as the Kyoto Accord, is an international treaty among industrialized nations that sets mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions. The greenhouse effect is the warming effect of the sun on greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, that act to trap this heat in our atmosphere.
Example: The KYOTO PROTOCOL , Rome treaty on ICC and treaty banning Land mines demonstrate that a growing group of actors of international diplomacy asserts an ethical dimension in the diplomatic discourse.
fr: protocole de Kyoto
Make (something bad) less severe, serious, or painful.
Example: Finally, the paper will examine methods by which international construction firms can MITIGATE these risks and maximize its benefits in the Chinese BOT boom.
A viscous liquid derived from petroleum, especially for use as a fuel or lubricant.
Example: The project is a master planned community in an urban instead of ex- urban context as is typical, formed on a brownfields site, which is currently the OIL services company Halliburton's mostly vacant headquarters just Northeast of downtown Houston.
The capital of France, in the north on the River Seine: constitutes a department; dates from the 3rd century bc, becoming capital of France in 987; centre of the French Revolution; centres around its original site on an island in the Seine, the Île de la Cité, containing Notre Dame; university (1150).
Example: These churches underscore the sophistication of Early Gothic construction south of PARIS .
parts per million
A way of expressing very dilute concentrations of substances.
Example: The chemical shift is dimensionless and measured in PARTS PER MILLION (ppm).
fr: parties par million
The official procedure or system of rules governing affairs of state or diplomatic occasions.
Example: All of these results must be interpreted in the light of future corpus-based study of recurrent featuresof translation, and it is recommended that a standardized PROTOCOL for recording the attributes of future comparable corpora should be adopted.
Energy from a source that is not depleted when used, such as wind or solar power.
Example: The resultant electricity and hot water produced by the hybrid PV-T collector system helped to reduce the use of non-RENEWABLE ENERGY .
fr: énergie renouvelable
Example: Thus, this study concludes that while remediation does partially ameliorate the negative price impacts associated with toxic waste sites, there remains a significant amount of inertia in the price recovery process, verifying common wisdom in the urban economics literature that REVERSE tipping of neighborhoods is difficult and problematic.
fr: sens inverse
An upward movement; an instance of rising.
Example: Sogdiana, among these three regions, witnessed the RISE , change and unprecedented development of many large metropolises that were distinct in several ways from the cities in other parts of the Islamic world.
The application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry.
Example: EC is commerce that utilizes electronic devices, TECHNOLOGY , and or applications in one or more business processes.
fr: la technologie
The degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object, especially as expressed according to a comparative scale and shown by a thermometer or perceived by touch.
Example: I find that TEMPERATURE and energy price shocks adversely affect elderly mortality.
A statement of an intention to inflict pain, injury, damage, or other hostile action on someone in retribution for something done or not done.
Example: A growing number of countries must take measures to protect citizens and visitors from the THREAT of terrorism.